Acquired Agraphias
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  Acquired Agraphias



Acquired Agraphias

   Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

RELATED TERMS
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Impairment
A defect in organ function or whole body system, which may be temporary or permanent (eg. hemiplegia).

Ability
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.

Injury
Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical.

Cerebral
Referring to the cerebrum.

Condition
The term "condition" has a number of biomedical meanings including the following: 1.An unhealthy state, such as in "this is a progressive condition." 2.A state of fitness, such as "getting into condition." 3.Something that is essential to the occurrence of something else; essentially a "precondition." 4.As a verb: to cause a change in something so that a response that was previously associated with a certain stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus; to condition a person, as in behavioral conditioning.

Isolation
A defense mechanism operating unconsciously central to obsessive-compulsive phenomena in which the affect is detached from an idea and rendered unconscious, leaving the conscious idea colorless and emotionally neutral.

APHASIA
Partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain caused by injury or disease.

Neurology
The branch of medicine that pertains to the nervous system.

APA
1. American Psychiatric Association. 2. American Psychological Association. 3. American Podiatry Association. 4. Antiphospholipid antibody. 5. Alkaline phosphatase activity.

Psychological
Pertaining to mental life as manifested through language and behavior.

Index
Shortening or summarizing of documents; assigning of descriptors for referencing documents.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acquired
"Anything that is not present at birth but develops some time later. In medicine, the word ""acquired"" implies ""new"" or ""added."" An acquired condition is ""new"" in the sense that it is not genetic (inherited) and ""added"" in the sense that was not present at birth. For example, AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is an acquired form of immune deficiency due to the acquisition of HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). An acquired mutation is a change in a gene that occurs in a single cell after the conception of the individual. That change is then passed along to all cells descended from that cell. Acquired mutations are involved in the development of cancer."

Acquired Alexia
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Aphasia
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.

Acquired Blindness
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.

Acquired Communication Disorders
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.

Acquired Deafnesses
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. Deafness may result from EAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; or BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Ear Deformity
Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.

Acquired Encephaloceles
Cerebral tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.

Acquired Epidermolysis Bullosa
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Direct immunofluorescence shows IMMUNOGLOBULIN G deposited at the dermo-epidermal junction.

Acquired Epileptic Aphasias
A syndrome characterized by the onset of isolated language dysfunction in otherwise normal children (age of onset 4-7 years) and epileptiform discharges on ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Seizures, including atypical absence (EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), complex partial (EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL), and other types may occur. The electroencephalographic abnormalities and seizures tend to resolve by puberty. The language disorder may also resolve although some individuals are left with severe language dysfunction, including APHASIA and auditory AGNOSIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp749-50; J Child Neurol 1997 Nov;12(8):489-495)

Acquired epileptiform aphasia
See Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

Acquired Facial Neuropathy
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Acquired Foot Deformities
Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.

Acquired Foot Deformity
Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.

Acquired Gerstmann Syndrome
A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)

Acquired Hand Deformities
Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.

Acquired Hemolytic Anemias
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Acquired Horner Syndrome
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)

Acquired Hyperostosis Syndromes
Syndrome consisting of synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO). The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. The association of sterile inflammatory bone lesions and neutrophilic skin eruptions is indicative of this syndrome.

Acquired immunity
Immunity acquired by infection or vaccination (active immunity) or by the transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (passive immunity). Acquired immunity is in contrast to innate immunity (natural immunity).

Acquired immunodeficiency disease
Acquired immunodeficiency disease: Disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Acquired Joint Deformity
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.

Acquired Language Disorders
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.

Acquired Meningocele
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.

Acquired Meningoceles
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.

Acquired Metabolic Encephalopathy
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.

Acquired mutation
A mutation (a genetic change) acquired by a somatic cell after conception. Acquired mutations occur in somatic cells, not germ cells, and so cannot be transmitted to the children. However, acquired mutations are transmitted to all cells descended from the mutant cell, giving rise to a clone (colony) of cells marked by the mutation. Some acquired mutations are involved in the development of cancer. Also known as an acquired genetic mutation, somatic mutation, or somatic cell mutation.

Acquired Myelomeningocele
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)

Acquired Neuromyotonia
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)

Acquired Nose Deformity
Deformities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.

Acquired Polyneuropathies
Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.

Acquired Prosopagnosia
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)

Acquired Reading Disability
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Spelling Dyslexia
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Vocal Cord Palsy
Paralysis of one or both vocal cords, which produces hoarseness or aphonia. This condition may be caused by diseases of the medulla (e.g., LATERAL MEDULLARY SYNDROME), VAGUS NERVE, or recurrent laryngeal nerve. Neuromuscular junction diseases and local myopathic processes may also affect vocal cord function. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1380)

Acquired Word Blindness
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Word Blindnesses
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired-Immune Deficiency Syndrome Dementia Complex
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Acquisition, Health Facility
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Acquisition, Knowledge (Computer)
The study and implementation of techniques and methods for designing computer systems to perform functions normally associated with human intelligence, such as understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, etc.

Acquisitions, Health Facility
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Acquisitions, Knowledge (Computer)
The study and implementation of techniques and methods for designing computer systems to perform functions normally associated with human intelligence, such as understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, etc.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Acoustic Perceptual Disorders
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Acoustic Trauma
Hearing loss from exposure to noise. The loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.

Acoustic Stimulation
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.

Acquired Aphasia
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.

Acquired Alexia
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

Acquired Agraphias

Acoustics, Speech
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.

Acids, Heptanoic
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acid, Penicillic
A mycotoxin with antibiotic and carcinogenic activity produced by various strains of Penicillium, by Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus melleus. Has been found in tobacco, sausages, and corn.

Acid, Dehydroascorbic
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.

Acquired Facial Neuropathy
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

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