Acoustic Nerve Disorders
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  Acoustic Nerve Disorders



Acoustic Nerve Disorders

   Diseases of the vestibular and/or cochlear (acoustic) nerves, which join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and acoustic neuromas (NEUROMA, ACOUSTIC) are relatively common conditions that affect these nerves. Clinical manifestations vary with which nerve is primarily affected, and include hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus.

RELATED TERMS
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Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Vestibular
Pertaining to or toward a vestibule. In dental anatomy, used to refer to the tooth surface directed toward the vestibule of the mouth.

Cochlear
Pertaining to the cochlea, the organ of hearing.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

NEURITIS
Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

Neuritis
Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Clinical
That which can be observed in patients. Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to laboratory testing or research in animals.

Hearing
The sensation of sound.

Vertigo
Dizziness.

Tinnitus
Sounds that are perceived in the absence of any external noise source which may take the form of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of cochlear diseases; vestibulocochlear nerve diseases; intracranial hypertension; craniocerebral trauma; and other conditions.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acou-
Combining form relating to hearing. As in acoustic, otoacoustic emission test, and presbyacousia.

Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Acoustic aphasia
See: Auditory aphasia.

Acoustic Evoked Brain Stem Potential
Electrical waves in the cerebral cortex generated by brain stem structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions, multiple sclerosis, or other demyelinating diseases.

Acoustic Impedance Tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Acoustic Maculas
Thickened areas of the saccule and utricle where the termination of the vestibular nerve occurs.

Acoustic nerve
A cranial nerve concerned with hearing, balance and head position. The acoustic nerve is the 8th cranial nerve. It branches into two parts -- a cochlear part integral to hearing and a vestibular part which mediates the sense of balance and head position. Also called the vestibulocochlear nerve.

Acoustic Nerve
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.

Acoustic neurinoma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic neurofibromatosis
See: Neurofibromatosis type 2.

Acoustic Neurofibromatosis, Bilateral
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.

Acoustic neuroma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic Neuroma
A schwannoma that arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include loss of hearing, headache, vertigo, facial pain, tinnitus, and facial weakness. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)

Acoustic Perceptual Disorders
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Acoustic Reflices
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.

Acoustic Rhinometry
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).

Acoustic Stimulation
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.

Acoustic Trauma
Hearing loss from exposure to noise. The loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.

Acoustics, Speech
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Aconitate Hydratase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.

Acomys
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus and Rattus, from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are HESPEROMYINAE (New World mice and rats), Cricetinae, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, MICROTINAE (Arvicolinae), GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, Murinae (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.

Acoustic Nerve
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.

Acoustic Maculas
Thickened areas of the saccule and utricle where the termination of the vestibular nerve occurs.

Acoustic Impedance Tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Acoustic Nerve Disorders

Acoustic Neuroma
A schwannoma that arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include loss of hearing, headache, vertigo, facial pain, tinnitus, and facial weakness. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)

Acoustic Neurofibromatosis, Bilateral
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.

Acoustic Rhinometry
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).

Acoustic Reflices
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.

Acoustic Perceptual Disorders
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

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