Acoustic Nerve
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  Acoustic nerve



Acoustic nerve

   A cranial nerve concerned with hearing, balance and head position. The acoustic nerve is the 8th cranial nerve. It branches into two parts -- a cochlear part integral to hearing and a vestibular part which mediates the sense of balance and head position. Also called the vestibulocochlear nerve.

RELATED TERMS
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Cranial
The anatomical term for towards the head; also the general term for of the head. i.e. the lungs are cranial to the pelvis. See Caudal/Inferior/Superior

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Hearing
The sensation of sound.

Balance
A biological system that enables us to know where our bodies are in the environment and to maintain a desired position. Normal balance depends on information from the inner ear, other senses (such as sight and touch) and muscle movement.

Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Cochlear
Pertaining to the cochlea, the organ of hearing.

Vestibular
Pertaining to or toward a vestibule. In dental anatomy, used to refer to the tooth surface directed toward the vestibule of the mouth.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acou-
Combining form relating to hearing. As in acoustic, otoacoustic emission test, and presbyacousia.

Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Acoustic aphasia
See: Auditory aphasia.

Acoustic Evoked Brain Stem Potential
Electrical waves in the cerebral cortex generated by brain stem structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions, multiple sclerosis, or other demyelinating diseases.

Acoustic Impedance Tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Acoustic Maculas
Thickened areas of the saccule and utricle where the termination of the vestibular nerve occurs.

Acoustic Nerve Disorders
Diseases of the vestibular and/or cochlear (acoustic) nerves, which join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and acoustic neuromas (NEUROMA, ACOUSTIC) are relatively common conditions that affect these nerves. Clinical manifestations vary with which nerve is primarily affected, and include hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus.

Acoustic neurinoma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic neurofibromatosis
See: Neurofibromatosis type 2.

Acoustic Neurofibromatosis, Bilateral
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.

Acoustic neuroma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic Neuroma
A schwannoma that arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include loss of hearing, headache, vertigo, facial pain, tinnitus, and facial weakness. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)

Acoustic Perceptual Disorders
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Acoustic Reflices
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.

Acoustic Rhinometry
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).

Acoustic Stimulation
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.

Acoustic Trauma
Hearing loss from exposure to noise. The loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.

Acoustics, Speech
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Acne rosacea
This term is actually a misnomer! The appropriate term is simply rosacea which is a chronic skin disease that affects the middle third of the face with persistent redness over the areas of the face and nose that normally blush: mainly the forehead, the chin and the lower half of the nose. The tiny blood vessels in these areas enlarge (dilate) and become more visible through the skin, appearing like tiny red lines (called telangiectasias). Pimples can occur that look like teenage acne. Unlike acne, rosacea is not primarily a plague of teenagers. It occurs most often in adults (ages 30 to 50), especially those with fair skin, and affects both sexes but tends to be more common in women but worse in men. Unlike acne, there are no blackheads or whiteheads in rosacea. When rosacea first develops, it may appear, then disappear, and then reappear. However, in time the skin fails to return to its normal color and the enlarged blood vessels and pimples arrive. Rosacea rarely reverses itself. It lasts for years and, untreated, it worsens. Untreated rosacea can cause a condition called rhinophyma (ryno-fee-ma), literally growth of the nose, characterized by a bulbous, enlarged red nose and puffy cheeks (like the old comedian W.C. Fields). There may also be thick bumps on the lower half of the nose and the nearby cheek areas. Rhinophyma occurs mainly in men.

Acne, adult
Popular name for rosacea. For more information, see: Rosacea.

ACNM
The American College of Nurse-Midwives. See: Nurse-midwife.

Acou-
Combining form relating to hearing. As in acoustic, otoacoustic emission test, and presbyacousia.

Acoustic aphasia
See: Auditory aphasia.

Acoustic nerve

Acoustic neurinoma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic neurofibromatosis
See: Neurofibromatosis type 2.

Acoustic neuroma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

ACP (American College of Physicians)
See: American College of Physicians.

Acquired
"Anything that is not present at birth but develops some time later. In medicine, the word ""acquired"" implies ""new"" or ""added."" An acquired condition is ""new"" in the sense that it is not genetic (inherited) and ""added"" in the sense that was not present at birth. For example, AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is an acquired form of immune deficiency due to the acquisition of HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). An acquired mutation is a change in a gene that occurs in a single cell after the conception of the individual. That change is then passed along to all cells descended from that cell. Acquired mutations are involved in the development of cancer."

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