Acoustic
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  Acoustic



Acoustic

   Having to do with sound and hearing.

RELATED TERMS
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Hearing
The sensation of sound.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acou-
Combining form relating to hearing. As in acoustic, otoacoustic emission test, and presbyacousia.

Acoustic aphasia
See: Auditory aphasia.

Acoustic Evoked Brain Stem Potential
Electrical waves in the cerebral cortex generated by brain stem structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions, multiple sclerosis, or other demyelinating diseases.

Acoustic Impedance Tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Acoustic Maculas
Thickened areas of the saccule and utricle where the termination of the vestibular nerve occurs.

Acoustic nerve
A cranial nerve concerned with hearing, balance and head position. The acoustic nerve is the 8th cranial nerve. It branches into two parts -- a cochlear part integral to hearing and a vestibular part which mediates the sense of balance and head position. Also called the vestibulocochlear nerve.

Acoustic Nerve
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.

Acoustic Nerve Disorders
Diseases of the vestibular and/or cochlear (acoustic) nerves, which join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and acoustic neuromas (NEUROMA, ACOUSTIC) are relatively common conditions that affect these nerves. Clinical manifestations vary with which nerve is primarily affected, and include hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus.

Acoustic neurinoma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic neurofibromatosis
See: Neurofibromatosis type 2.

Acoustic Neurofibromatosis, Bilateral
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.

Acoustic neuroma
A benign tumor that may develop on the hearing and balance nerves near the inner ear. The tumor results from an overproduction of Schwann cells -- small sheet-like cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers like onion skin and help support the nerves. When growth is abnormally excessive, Schwann cells bunch together, pressing against the hearing and balance nerves, often causing gradual hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. If the tumor becomes large, it can interfere with the facial nerve, causing partial paralysis, and eventually press against nearby brain structures, becoming life-threatening.

Acoustic Neuroma
A schwannoma that arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include loss of hearing, headache, vertigo, facial pain, tinnitus, and facial weakness. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)

Acoustic Perceptual Disorders
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Acoustic Reflices
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.

Acoustic Rhinometry
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).

Acoustic Stimulation
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.

Acoustic Trauma
Hearing loss from exposure to noise. The loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.

Acoustics, Speech
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Abruption
A sudden breaking off or away. Abruption of the placenta (abruptio placentae) is the premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus, a potentially very serious situation for the mother and baby.

Abs
Commonly used slang for the abdominal muscles, the muscles running up and down in the abdominal wall. The "abs" contain the rectus abdominus muscle, "rectus" meaning straight."

Abstinence
To hold back or restrain. For example, to refrain from the use of drugs or alcohol, or from having sexual intercourse.

Acclimation
The process of getting used to a new climate or altitude.

Acidosis
An abnormal condition in the body in which excessive acid lowers the pH of the blood and body tissues.

Acoustic

Acromegaly
A condition that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone. In adults, this can cause overgrowth of bones that occurs in smaller bones, such as those in the jaw, hands and feet. In children or teenagers, this can cause giantism.

Actinic keratoses
Scaly, pink, gray or tan patches or bumps on the face or scalp, or on the back of the hands. Occur mostly on people who have light skin that has been damaged by the sun.

Acute
1. Of short course. 2. Severe, but of a short duration. Not chronic.

Addiction
Strong dependence or habitual use of a substance or practice, despite the negative consequences of its use.

Adenoids
Glandular tissue in the back of the throat that may swell, especially during childhood, obstruct breathing and speaking, and lead to ear infections.

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