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  ABCD rating

ABCD rating

    A staging system for prostate cancer. See the Jewett staging system.


An evaluation of the extent of disease that provides the basis for making treatment recommendations.

A male sex gland that produces a thick fluid which forms part of semen.

Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.



Aase-Smith syndrome II
A genetic disorder that may be detected during early infancy and is characterized by the presence of three bones (phalanges) within the thumbs (triphalangeal thumbs) rather than the normal two and abnormally reduced production of red blood cells (hypoplastic anemia). The exact cause of the syndrome is unknown. However, most evidence suggests that the disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The syndrome is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. Smith. Alternative names for the syndrome include: Anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Congenital anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Hypoplastic anemia-triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type.

Ab ovo
Latin expression for "from the beginning." Ab ovo literally means "from the egg."

Prefix meaning "from, away from, off" as in abduction (movement of a limb away from the midline of the body), ablate (carry or cut away), abnormal (away from normal), absorb (to suck away). Ab in Latin means "from."

To lessen or decrease. After a boil is lanced, the pus can drain and the pain and tenderness abate. From the French abbatre, to beat down.

A diminution, decrease or easing. In medicine there may be abatement of pain or any other symptom or sign. In the environment there may abatement in the degree of pollution. See also Abate.

ABCD rating

Acute abdomen
The abrupt (acute) onset of abdominal pain. A potential medical emergency, an acute abdomen may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen such as the appendix (being inflamed = appendicitis), the gallbladder (inflamed = cholecystitis), the intestine (an ulcer that has perforated), the spleen (that has ruptured), etc. The term "acute abdomen" is medical shorthand. It has nonetheless come into common usage in medical parlance.

Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs. The abdomen includes a host of organs including the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder. The word "abdomen" has a curious story behind it. It comes from the Latin "abdodere", to hide. The idea was that whatever was eaten was hidden in the abdomen.

Abdominal aneurysm
An aneurysm situated within the abdomen (belly). An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart. At the area of an aneurysm, there is typically a bulge and the wall is weakened and may rupture. The word "aneurysm" comes from the Greek "aneurysma" meaning "a widening." An aneurysm may involve the aorta, the largest artery in the body, as it courses down through the abdomen. Because of the great volume of blood flowing under high pressure in the aorta, rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a surefire catastrophe.

Abdominal aorta
The abdominal aorta is the final section of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. It is a continuation of the thoracic aorta. It begins at the diaphragm, and runs down to the point where it ends (by splitting in two to form the common iliac arteries). The abdominal aorta supplies oxygenated blood to all of the abdominal and pelvic organs and the legs. Like the other sections of the aorta (the ascending aorta, aortic arch and thoracic aorta), the abdominal aorta is an arbitrary anatomic entity. The aorta is one continuous conduit that arises out of the left ventricle of the heart to carry blood to the body. Nonetheless, the abdominal aorta is a hallowed and convenient subdivision of the aorta. The abdominal aorta is also known in medical Latin as the aorta abdominalis or the pars abdominalis aortae (under which it is often hidden in standard print medical dictionaries).

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
A ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. At the point of the aneurysm, the aneurysm usually measures 3 cm or more in diameter. The aneurysm weakens the wall of the aorta and can end in the aorta rupturing with catastrophic consequences. As the diameter of the aorta increases, the chances of an AAA rupturing rise. A measurement of 5 cm is often used to recommend surgery. Persons with AAA tend to be 60 or over. Men are 5 times more likely than women to have an AAA.

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